Primaries and Caucuses

Alabama

Alabama has open primaries. Voters do not register with a particular party, but a voter who participates in one party’s primary may only vote in that party’s primary runoff election. If a voter did not participate in a party’s primary election, then they may choose either party’s ballot in a primary runoff election.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Alaska

Alaska holds semi-open statewide primaries. For Republican primaries, Republicans, nonpartisans, or undeclared voters may participate. Any registered voter can participate in the Democratic/Independence Party primary elections, regardless of political party. Alaska does not hold presidential primaries.

17-year-olds can not vote in the Democratic primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Arizona

Arizona has open primaries. Any registered voter can participate in primary elections, regardless of political party.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Arkansas

Arkansas has open primaries. Any registered voter can participate in primary elections, regardless of political party.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

California

California has closed primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s primary.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Colorado

Colorado has semi-open primaries. Voters registered with a particular political party can vote in that party’s primary, as can unaffiliated voters.

17-year-olds can vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Connecticut

Connecticut has closed primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s primary.

17-year-olds can vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Delaware

Delaware has closed primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s primary.

17-year-olds can vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

District of Columbia

D.C. has closed primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s primary.

17-year-olds can vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Florida

Florida has closed primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s primary.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Georgia

Georgia has open primaries. Any registered voter can participate in primary elections, regardless of political party.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Hawaii

Hawaii has open primaries for congressional and state elections. Any registered voter can participate in primary elections, regardless of political party. Hawaii holds closed presidential primaries.

17-year-olds cannot participate in primaries even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Idaho

Idaho has semi-open and closed primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s primary. A voter may only participate in the primary election of the political party for which they are registered, unless a party allows unaffiliated voters and/or voters registered with other parties to also participate in their primary. Unaffiliated voters can participate in all congressional and state primaries as well as Democratic presidential primaries, but only registered Republicans can participate in Republican presidential primaries.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Illinois

Illinois has closed primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s primary.

17-year-olds can vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Indiana

Indiana has open primaries. Any registered voter can participate in primary elections, regardless of political party. If you are affiliated with either the Democratic Party or the Republican Party, you are entitled to vote for candidates of that party at the primary election. However, you must state which party you are affiliated with by asking the poll workers for the ballot of that party. You may only vote for candidates in the party whose ballot you select. If you are not affiliated with either of these two parties, you are still entitled to vote on a public question that is held on the same day as the primary without asking for a party ballot.

17-year-olds can vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election, although they may have to vote a special ballot that does not include all of the same questions as the regular ballot.

Iowa

Iowa has both caucuses and primaries. Caucuses are run by political parties and are used primarily to select delegates from the local to the national level who then represent voters’ preferences in terms of presidential candidates and party issues. Primaries are run by the state, where voters cast secret ballots in order to elect officials in all races excluding presidential.

Iowa has closed caucuses. Voters must be registered with a party in order to attend that party’s caucus.

Iowa has closed primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s primary.

17-year-olds can vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Kansas

Kansas has closed primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s primary. However, unaffiliated voters can register with a political party on Election Day.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Kentucky

Kentucky has closed primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s primary.

17-year-olds can vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Louisiana

Louisiana has closed presidential primaries and open congressional primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s presidential primary. Any registered voter can participate in primary congressional elections, regardless of political party.

17-year-olds cannot vote in any primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Maine

In presidential, state, and congressional primaries, voters must affiliate with a party to vote in their primary, but unaffiliated voters may affiliate with a party on election day. Affiliated voters wishing to update their affiliation must do so at least 15 days before an election. You can update your affiliation 3 months after the date of your last party change.

17-year-olds can in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Maryland

Maryland typically has closed primaries, although it is up to the state political parties to decide. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s primary.

17-year-olds can vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Massachusetts

Massachusetts has open primaries. Any registered voter can participate in primary elections, regardless of political party.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Michigan

Michigan has open primaries for elections that are not presidential. For presidential primaries, a party must be declared — however, this is not considered a declaration of party affiliation. For all other primaries, you can vote on either side of the ballot, but once you place a vote you have to stay on that side.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Minnesota

Minnesota has open congressional and state primaries. Any registered voter can participate in primary elections, regardless of political party. Minnesota has closed presidential primaries. Voters must affirm which party they are affiliated with and may only vote in that party’s primary.

17-year-olds cannot vote in primary elections even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Mississippi

Mississippi has open primaries. Any registered voter can participate in primary elections, regardless of political party.

17-year-olds can vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Missouri

Missouri has open primaries. Any registered voter can participate in primary elections, regardless of political party.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Montana

Montana has open primaries. Any registered voter can participate in primary elections, regardless of political party.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Nebraska

Nebraska has closed primaries by default, but political parties may choose to open them.

17-year-olds can vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Nevada

Nevada has closed caucuses. Voters registered with a particular party may only participate in that party’s caucus.

17-year-olds can participate in presidential caucuses if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election, but cannot do so for other caucuses.

New Hampshire

New Hampshire has semi-open primaries. Undeclared voters can choose to vote in either primary.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

New Jersey

New Jersey has closed primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s primary. For congressional and state primary elections, voters can choose to affiliate with a party at the polls on Election Day if the voter is unaffiliated.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

New Mexico

New Mexico has closed primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s primary.

17-year-olds can vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

New York

New York has closed primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s primary. Voters may change their enrollment in a political party up to twenty five days before the general election, which will be effective immediately. Any change of enrollment after February 14 and seven days before the June primary will be effective on the seventh day following the June primary.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

North Carolina

North Carolina has semi-closed primaries. Unless a recognized party chooses to have its primary open to unaffiliated voters, only voters registered with a particular party may vote in that party’s primary.

17-year-olds can vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

North Dakota

North Dakota has open primaries. Voters are able to choose whichever party they want, but they are not allowed to cross party lines on the ballot.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Ohio

Ohio has semi-open primaries. Voters become affiliated with a political party by choosing to vote in that party’s primary. Voters declare or change their affiliation by choosing a party’s primary ballot. Unaffiliated voters can vote with an Official Questions and Issues Ballot if they do not wish to vote on people or become affiliated with a party.

17-year-olds can vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election. However, they can only vote to nominate candidates and cannot vote on issues or party central committees until they are 18.

Oklahoma

Oklahoma has closed primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s primary. However, parties can choose to allow registered Independent voters to also participate in their primaries.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Oregon

Oregon has closed primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s primary.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania has closed primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s primary.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Rhode Island

Rhode Island has semi-open primaries. If you are affiliated with a specific political party, you may only vote in that party’s primary. Unaffiliated (also known as independent) voters can vote in any party primary but, by casting a vote in a party primary, you automatically become affiliated with that party. To return to an unaffiliated status, you may request a “disaffiliation form” from poll workers and fill it out before leaving the polling place. You will officially return to your unaffiliated status in 90 days.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

South Carolina

South Carolina has open primaries, but you are only allowed to participate in one party’s primary. (This affiliation lasts only for primaries, except in the case of a runoff where you must vote the same as you voted in the primary.)

17-year-olds can vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

South Dakota

South Dakota has semi-open and closed primaries. Only voters registered with the Republican Party may only vote in that party’s primary. Voters registered with the Democratic Party and unaffiliated voters may vote in the Democratic Primary.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Tennessee

Tennessee has open primaries. Any registered voter can participate in primary elections, regardless of political party. (Tennessee does not register political party).

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Texas

Texas has open primaries. A registered voter can select which primary election they vote in. Once they vote in the primary, they affiliate with that party for the remainder of the year and cannot participate in another party’s primary runoff or convention process.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Utah

Utah has semi-open and closed primaries. Only voters registered with the Republican Party may vote in that party’s primary for both state and presidential primaries. Voters registered with the Democratic Party and unaffiliated voters may vote in the state Democratic Primary, while all registered voters regardless of party can vote in the presidential Democratic Primary.

17-year-olds can vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Vermont

Vermont has open primaries. Any registered voter can participate in primary elections, regardless of political party.

17-year-olds can vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Virginia

Virginia has open primaries. Any registered voter can participate in primary elections, regardless of political party.

17-year-olds can vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Washington

Washington has open primaries. Voters are not asked for party affiliation when registering to vote, and they are asked for a party declaration only in presidential primaries. Party affiliation is removed from all ballots after elections.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

West Virginia

West Virginia has semi-open primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s primary, but unaffiliated voters may choose any primary ballot.

17-year-olds can vote in the primary election if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Wisconsin

Wisconsin has open primaries. Any registered voter can participate in primary elections, regardless of political party.

17-year-olds cannot vote in the primary election even if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.

Wyoming

Wyoming has closed primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party’s primary. However, voters can change their party affiliation on Election Day.

17-year-olds can participate in the Democratic presidential caucus if they will be 18 by the corresponding general election.